New allelochemical found in rice

A new allelopathic amino acid, (R)-β-tyrosine has been discovered in japonica rice. A team of researchers from Cornell University, leaded by Prof. Georg Jander of the Boyce Thomson Institute for Plant Research, and Asian laboratories (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yamagata University and Kyoto University in Japan, and National Taiwan University) found the isomer of the common amino acid (S)-α-tyrosine in the seeds, leaves, roots, and root exudates of the Nipponbare rice cultivar. The non-protein amino acid (R)-β-tyrosine was not known as a plant metabolite but rather it has been associated with the biosynthesis of medically relevant antibiotics in bacteria. The authors also reported the discovery of a rice tyrosine aminomutase, encoded by the gene TAM1 that stereo-specifically transforms the common (S)-α-tyrosine into (R)-β-tyrosine. (R)-β-tyrosine inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas syringae as well as the growth of seedlings of dicotyledonous plants; monocots were less sensitive and rice (both japonica and indica) is tolerant. This amino acid joins another group of compounds from rice that have been found to act as allelochemicals, including momilactone A and B, phenolic acids, fatty acids, indoles and terpenes (see a review).

Nuevo compuesto alelopático descubierto en el arroz

Un nuevo amino ácido alelopático, la (R)-β-tirosina ha sido descubierto en arroz japonica. Un equipo de investigadores de la Universidad de Cornell, liderados por el Prof. Georg Jander del Boyce Thomson Institute for Plant Research, y de laboratorios asiáticos (Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yamagata University y Kyoto University en Japón, y la National Taiwan University) encontraron el isómero del amino ácido común (S)-α-tirosina en las semillas, hojas, raíces y exudados radicales del cultivar arroz Nipponbare. El amino ácido no proteínico (R)-β-tirosina no se conocía como un metabolito vegetal sino en asocio con la biosíntesis de antibióticos médicamente importantes en bacterias. Los autores también informaron el descubrimiento de una aminomutasa de la tirosina en arroz, codificada por el gene TAM1 que transforma de manera estereoespecífica la (S)-α-tirosina en (R)-β-tirosina. La (R)-β-tirosina inhibió el crecimiento de Pseudomonas syringae así como el de plantas dicotiledóneas; las monocotiledóneas fueron menos sensibles y el arroz (tanto japonica como indica) es tolerante. Este amino ácido se une a un grupo de compuestos del arroz que se ha encontrado tienen propiedades alelopáticas, incluidas las momilactonas A y B, ácidos fenólicos, ácidos grasos, indoles y terpenos (ver una revisión).

Sources / Fuentes:

Yan, J., T. Aboshi, M. Teraishi, S. R. Strickler, J. E. Spindel, C. W. Tung, R. Takata, F. Matsumoto, Y. Maesaka, S. R. McCouch, Y. Okumoto, N. Mori, and G. Jander. 2015. The tyrosine aminomutase TAM1 is required for β -tyrosine biosynthesis in rice. The Plant Cell 27:1265-1278.

Why rice can’t get along with its neighbors.

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